College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences

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Brief summaries of funded projects for the FY 2009 Emerging Research Issues Internal Competitive Grants Program.

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Summaries are extracted from portions of the funded proposals. Complete versions of the funded proposals are available upon request to the ARC.

 
Cover Crops to Enhance Soil Productivity and Nitrogen Management in Organic and Transition Vegetable Production Systems
PI: Craig Cogger, Crop and Soil Sciences, Western Washington Research and Extension Center
Cooperators: Ann-Marie Fortuna, Ann Kennedy, Andy Bary, Kate Painter, Bee Cha

Emerging Issues addressed: 2. Retention and enhancement of soil productivity. 4. Transitioning from conventional to organic production systems. 7. Agricultural practices at the urban-rural interface.

Significance: Cover crops provide multiple benefits to enhance soil productivity, and are especially well suited to the urban-rural interface, where there are heightened concerns about agricultural runoff and odors. Despite these benefits, farmer acceptance of cover crops often hinges on providing an economically valuable “keystone” service, such as nitrogen (N) supply. Quantifying and refining our ability to predict N transfer from N-fixing crops under local conditions is a key to increasing adoption of cover cropping into organic and transition vegetable production systems in western Washington.

Objectives:

  1. Compare the N contribution of summer-inter-seeded hairy vetch with a fall-planted rye-hairy vetch blend in an organic transition vegetable production system.
  2. Quantify the N contribution of fall-planted hairy vetch and rye-vetch blend cover crops in an organic transition vegetable crop rotation and assess the timing of N availability.
  3. Develop practical guidelines for estimating the N contribution of cover crops in organic and transitional vegetable production.

Amount for FY 2009 = $58,237
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Genomically Standardized Farming for High-Quality Beef to Benefit Washington Agriculture and Human Health
PIs: Zhihua Jiang, Animal Sciences; Raymond Wright, Animal Sciences; Karen Killinger, Food Science and Human Nutrition

Emerging issues addressed: 9. Consumer preferences and acceptance of evolving biotechnologies and functional foods aimed at improving health and nutrition.

Significance: Eating healthy or eating right is a popular topic of everyday life, which contributes to maintaining a healthy body weight and enhancing general wellbeing and reduces the risk of a number of diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes. The objective of the proposed research is to create new options for producing beef that is healthy but yet flavorful for consumers and develop a niche product for producers. Our proposed research on genomically standardized farming would help at three interface issues between scientists, producers and consumers, including an discussion between producers and consumers about how producers can best use genomic technology to adjust their breeding programs in order to produce products that meet consumers’ need for healthy foods; a discussion between scientists and producers about how scientists can transfer genomic discoveries from the laboratory to on-farm applications and a discussion between scientists and consumers about how scientists can convince consumers to accept genomically standardized animal products.

Objectives:
Our proposed system of genomically standardized farming involves:

  1. collection of oocytes and sperm to enable reproductive laboratories to produce thousands of embryos;
  2. determination of genotypes of each embryo for genomic laboratory selection of those that have the potential to produce healthy products for consumers;
  3. transplantation of these selected embryos into host animals to allow producers to generate breeding stock for a large scale production of healthy food later; and
  4. public evaluation of genomically standardized products to assess consumer acceptance.

Amount for FY 2009 = $60,000
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A Needs Assessment for Washington Conventional and Organic Produce Growers: Food Safety Awareness and Use of Management Practices Promoting Safety of Washington Produce
PI: Karen Killinger, Food Science and Human Nutrition
Cooperators: Andy Bary, Craig Cogger, Richard Dougherty, Jessica Goldberger, Joe Harrison, Carol Miles, Marcia Ostrom

Emerging Issues addressed: 4. Transitioning from conventional to organic production systems and 11. Production, marketing, and distribution systems in support of emerging regional and local food systems.

Significance: Produce food safety has emerged as a critical agricultural issue. The research would provide data to identify the most important producer needs for the state of Washington and produce a validated assessment tool that can be utilized in subsequent years to maintain knowledge of producer needs and practices. Furthermore, an assessment of compost safety will provide critical data to evaluate the safety of an important nutrient source used by Washington crop producers. Increasing the relevance of information available to produce growers and increasing their awareness of food safety issues will be an important outcome.

Objectives:

  1. Conduct a producer needs assessment to identify common practices for conventional and organic management systems and fields in transition as well as producer knowledge of food safety issues and regulations.
  2. Assess pathogen risk in manure-based compost by pathogen isolation, indicator organism quantification and comparisons of conventional and organic fields.
  3. Conduct extension programs to increase producer awareness of food safety, on-farm practices affecting food safety and regulations relating to food safety.

Amount for FY 2009 = $65,000
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Examination of foodborne pathogens in relation to bacterial water quality parameters and water quality improvement using sustainable agriculture approaches.
PI: Karen Killinger, Food Science and Human Nutrition
Cooperators: Joe Harrison, Brenda Schroeder, Thomas Besser, Margaret Davis

Emerging Issues addressed: 6. Water and air environmental quality as part of sustainable agricultural production systems. 7. Agricultural practices at the urban-rural interface

Significance: Pathogens in irrigation water that can lead to food contamination represent a critical agricultural issue. The proposed research and outreach will examine the presence of pathogens and indicator organisms in irrigation systems in the Yakima River watershed as a function of location and season. It will further define the strategic considerations in pathogen control in a major agricultural area of Washington. Increased information supporting producer implementation of sustainable best management practices is likely to be a significant outcome of this study.

Objectives:

  1. Assess bacterial water quality and pathogen presence in the Yakima River Watershed by testing for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. and enumerating total and fecal coliforms.
  2. Assess the effectiveness of best management practices in improving water quality and reducing pathogen runoff.
  3. Perform outreach activities to increase water quality awareness and adoption of best management strategies to improve water quality within the Yakima River Watershed.

Amount for FY 2009 = $62,000
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High Throughput Profiling of Washington Crops for Phytochemicals Related to Human Health
PI: B. Markus Lange, Institute of Biological Chemistry
Cooperators: John Reganold, Preston Andrews

Emerging Issues addressed: 9. Consumer preferences and acceptance of evolving biotechnologies and functional foods aimed at improving health and nutrition

Significance: Value-added agriculture is one of the most important drivers of the Washington State economy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new high-throughput analytical methods to measure the levels of health-related phytochemicals and to apply these techniques to evaluate if claims can be made that the consumption of Washington produce provides added health benefits to consumers.

Objectives: Work in the first year of the study has identified a large number of phytochemicals in apple and raspberry and begun to correlate these with variety. The specific goals of the proposed activities in year two are to:

  1. Extend the current work by identifying additional compounds in apple and raspberry.
  2. Expand the analysis to other major Washington agricultural commodities, including sweet cherry, blueberry, potato, wheat and milk.
  3. Implement a new high technology platform that will allow the analysis of more polar metabolites.
  4. Develop a brochure and other materials that will provide extension scientists and industry and consumer stakeholders with information about our findings and analytical capabilities.

Amount for FY 2009 = $34,000
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An Autonomous Application System for Targeted Pest Control
PIs: F. J. Pierce, Center for Precision Agricultural Systems; M. Kise, Center for Precision Agricultural Systems; D. B. Walsh, Entomology/IAREC; J. Chang, WSU Tri-Cities/Mechanical Engineering
Other collaborators: Gwen-Alyn Hoheisel, John Reid, Sandra Halstead, Leif Olsen, Kevin Corliss, Craig O’Brien

Emerging Issues addressed: 5. Automation and mechanization to enhance the efficiency, safety, and economic sustainability of food production and processing systems; and 1. Development and implementation of integrated pest management in irrigated agricultural systems

Significance: Automation of pesticide application has the potential to decrease pesticide usage, improve worker safety, and reduce labor inputs into crop production.

Objectives: Our major objective is to develop and demonstrate an autonomous application system for targeted pest control designed specifically to improve barrier applications for cutworm control in grapes as a model for other pests in other crops. The system will include a vision system for target recognition and assessment and pest control material application technologies that either 1) improves application accuracy for the current pyrethroid barrier application, 2) applies a uniform application of hot pepper wax to the grape trunk as an organic control alternative, or 3) installs a physical barrier on the trunk consisting either of a band or a wrap treated with pyrethroid or hot pepper wax, respectively. A sub-objective will be to conduct preliminary field experiments to assess the efficacy of all three pest-control methods using manual application in year 1 and 2, with a comparative assessment of manual versus autonomous application in year 2.

Amount for FY 2009 = $52,645
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Adding Values to Agricultural Commodities Produced in the State of Washington: A Multidisciplinary Approach
PI: Juming Tang, Biological Systems Engineering
Cooperators: Shyam Sablani, Boon Chew, Barry Swanson, Joe Powers, Jose De J. Barrios, Jinwen Zhang

Emerging Issues Addressed: 9. Consumer preferences and acceptance of evolving biotechnologies and functional foods aimed at improving health and nutrition; and 10. Improving farm profitability through new uses of crops, livestock, and byproducts.

Significance: The general goal of the proposed work is to initiate research activities that connect food processing and human nutrition by studying the influence of food processing operations on health-related functional properties of major agricultural commodities produced in the state of Washington. This will build a strong platform to attract state and federal funding to enhance and expand our multidisciplinary research and graduate education for the benefit of the state economy and the health of its citizens.

Objectives: In order to achieve measurable outcomes within a two-year period, we have chosen to focus on influence of two main food processing unit operations, novel drying and extrusion technologies. These technologies have broad applications for agricultural products produced in the state of Washington. We will later extend our efforts to other unit operations, including novel thermal processing, extraction and separation technologies. Specific objectives for year 2 are: 1) to study the changes of in vitro glycemic index (GI) and antioxidant activity in select processing operations. The focus will be on the drying of colored potatoes with legumes and the extraction of small fruit by-products using enzymes. 2) to develop formulations and processes for producing food products rich in antioxidants and high in protein with low GI values; 3) to study the stability of antocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activities in low and high moisture raspberry to establish shelf life of various raspberry products; and 4) to actively seek industry collaborations and transfer developed technologies.

Amount for FY 2009 = $60,000
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Preparing Washington State Forage Producers for Pest Management and Agronomic Impacts of Long-Term Drought and Climatic Change
PI: Douglas Walsh, Entomology, IAREC
Cooperators: R. Troy Peters, Rick Boydston, Kerry Ringer, Phil Petersen, Timothy Waters, Sally O’Neal

Emerging Issues addressed: 1. Development and implementation of integrated pest management in irrigated agricultural systems and 3. Improving water use efficiency

Significance: Long-term climate models predict reduced mountain snowpack and increased drought severity and frequency. It is generally assumed that water shortage has a negative impact on crop production and crop quality. But deficit irrigation can influence quality characteristics positively, as experience with wine grapes has shown. The project will assess agronomic and pest management challenges that water shortage would impose on producers of alfalfa, mint and hops, which were chosen to represent crops important in Washington state that require different production strategies and are predicted to respond to water stress in differently.

Objectives: We will determine agronomic impacts and pest management challenges associated with reduced water availability in forage (alfalfa), field (mint) and vine (hops) crops by 1) creating simulated water deficit situations through engineering of line source, center pivot and drip irrigation systems; 2) assessing various pest control techniques at various levels of water availability and attempt to develop recommendations for reduced risk pest management techniques appropriate to these conditions; 3) determine the effect of water stress on the quantity and quality of crop production and 4) disseminate the results via multiple channels.

Amount for FY 2009 = $62,631
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High-Value Crops under High Tunnels in Western Washington
PIs: Thomas Walters, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture/Mt Vernon; Carol Miles, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture/Mt Vernon
Cooperators: Debra Inglis, Lynell Tanigoshi, Tim Miller, Craig MacConnell, Don McMoran

Emerging Issues addressed: 7. Agricultural practices at the urban-rural interface; 11. Production, marketing, and distribution systems in support of emerging regional and local food systems; and 4. Transitioning from conventional to organic production systems

Significance: Urbanization results in high land costs making traditional commodity crop production unprofitable. High tunnels (unheated, three-season structures with open ends) offer a means to greatly enhance crop values by extending the production season, increasing the range of crops that can be successfully grown, and easing the transition to high-value organic production. High tunnels have become widely adopted in other food growing regions such as the United Kingdom, California, Spain and Portugal. Western Washington’s mild, marine climate is ideal for tunnels. Crop productivity, marketability and diversity could be greatly enhanced with the additional daytime heat and rain protection they provide. However, high tunnel research in our region has not kept up with research in the rest of the world. Information needed includes:

  1. Will high tunnels facilitate high-value production systems in Western Washington?
  2. Will high tunnels remove pest management barriers to organic production?
  3. Which cropping systems will maximize profitability over a year?

Objectives:

  1. To adapt high-value vegetable and fruit tunnel production systems to western Washington.
  2. To determine the value of protected structures as a tool for Integrated Pest Management and for transition to organic production.
  3. To assign a value to crops produced from identified systems and determine total system return on investment.

Amount for FY 2009 = $48,512
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Investigation of Starch-Based Polycarboxylic Acids as Curing Agents for Waterborne Epoxy Adhesives and Crosslinker for Cellulose
PIs: Jinwen Zhang, Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory; Ming Xian, Chemistry; Vikram Yadama, Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory

Emerging Issues addressed: 9. Consumer preferences and acceptance of evolving biotechnologies and functional foods aimed at improving health and nutrition; 10. Improving farm profitability through new uses of crops, livestock, and by-products.

Significance: The long term goal of the proposed research is to use renewable resources to produce economically viable and environmentally benign alternatives to petrochemical adhesives and impregnating polymers. We propose to derive these from starch, the second most abundant plant polymer, and a major component of various Washington crops, including wheat and potato. Developing additional value-added non-food applications is in the interest of the long-term health of the Washington agricultural sector.

Objectives: Specially, we propose to investigate starch based polycarboxylic acid (SPCA) as a cost-effective curing agent for waterborne epoxy adhesives and as a crosslinker for the moisture/water resistance treatment of cellulosic materials. In the work to be carried out in the second year of this grant, we will investigate the synthesis of starch-based polyamines and polyamidoamines as curing agents for waterborne epoxy coatings. Unlike carboxylic or anhydride based curing agents, which require elevated temperatures for curing, the amine-type curing agents can be used at ambient temperatures.

Amount for FY 2009 = $60,992
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Quantifying intra-tree fruit quality variability relative to 3-D canopy architecture
PIs: Matthew Whiting, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Michio Kise, Center for Precision Agricultural Systems
Cooperators: Fran Pierce, Jim Olmstead

Emerging issue addressed: Automation and mechanization to enhance the efficiency, safety, and economic sustainability of food production and processing systems

Significance: The future of Washington’s tree fruit industries depends upon delivering to consumers a superlative, consistent, and flavorful product. It is every grower’s goal to eliminate cull fruit and optimize the yield of the highest quality fruit. However, irrespective of location, cultivar, rootstock, training system, or management intensity, every orchard yields fruit that disappoints consumers with its poor eating quality. The precise source of this variability is largely unknown but may be related to specific conditions on the tree that differ from location to location as the result of the developing fruit’s position in the canopy and relationship to foliage and other fruit on the tree. We propose to identify causes of variability in quality related to canopy architecture and develop precision canopy management strategies to improve grower profitability and consumer satisfaction.

Objectives: We propose to combine analyses of high-resolution digital canopies with high-density maps of fruit quality and light levels to identify key topological and microclimatic factors affecting apple and sweet cherry fruit quality. Our primary objective is to quantify inter- and intra-tree variability in fruit quality in relation to three dimensional canopy architecture and light distribution. Our long-term goal is to develop an automated grower tool for tree fruit pruning based on tree structure/topology. Specific objectives include: Developing an automated laser scanning system to quantify canopy architecture; Mapping individual fruit quality and distribution within trees; Creating high resolution 3D digital models of canopy architecture; Modeling light distribution within the canopy; Developing an integrated system to differentiate intra-tree fruit quality potential based on laser scanned canopy architecture.

Amount for FY 2009 = $64,756
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Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Manure and Biosolids – Implications for Agricultural Systems and Water Quality
PI: Jeffrey Ullman, Biological Systems Engineering
Co-PIs: Andrew Bary, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, Craig Cogger, Joseph Harrison, Karen Killinger, Jeremy Rentz

Emerging Issue: Water environmental quality in sustainable agricultural production systems.

Significance: Antibiotics found in manure and biosolids that are land applied as a soil amendment or disposal practice present an emerging issue facing sustainable food and agricultural production, as these compounds have been shown to impart direct human and environmental health threats and promote antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Concentrated livestock production has significantly increased antibiotic use, and poor drug adsorption by animals can subsequently lead to 30-90% antibiotic excretion rates. Biosolids are stabilized solids from municipal wastewater treatment that meet criteria for agricultural use, but human and veterinary antibiotics derived from wastewater have been shown to persist. Media reports and frequent questions asked during extension activities indicate a growing public anxiety over consumption of crops and vegetables grown in conjunction with manure and biosolids, which ultimately could have a negative impact on a range of commodities and farming practices, manure and biosolids disposal, and livestock facilities.

Objectives: Conduct a reconnaissance of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance in manure and biosolid management practices used in the State of Washington. Determine fundamental fate and transport processes of antibiotics identified in this survey, including associated microbial interactions. Perform field experiments on two manure management practices (composting and aerobic digestion) to determine antibiotic treatment efficiency in order to link findings from the work above to field settings. Incorporate information gained from these studies into state, regional and national extension activities, as well as a new WSU graduate-level course.

Amount for FY 2009 =$62,945
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Modeling the Impact of New Generation Insecticides used in Apple Production on Water Quality
PI: John Stark, WSU Puyallup Research and Ext. Center
Co-PIs: Vince Hebert, WSU-Food and Environmental Quality Lab., Tri-Cities Campus; Jay Brunner, WSU Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center
Collaborator: Jim Cowles, Surface Water Monitoring Program, WSDA, Olympia, WA

Emerging Issue Being Addressed: Water and air environmental quality as part of sustainable agricultural production systems

Significance: Organophosphate insecticides have been shown to damage to aquatic life. Apple producers in Washington have relied heavily on the use of organophosphates to control major insect pests, but regulatory action and insect resistance are acting to bring their use to a close. A new generation of insecticides is now available for use by apple growers and there is an active educational project aimed at helping growers transition to using these new pest control tools (http://pmtp.wsu.edu/index.html). However, there is a lack of knowledge about the fate and environmental effects of these new pesticides. For the apple industry to remain competitive in a world market, they need to be able to economically control pests that attack their crop. This must be done in a manner that provides access to globally “green” markets which more and more demand care for the environment, especially water, a resource that the Washington fruit industry is totally dependent upon. Therefore, the apple industry needs to be able to make informed decisions about which insecticides are efficacious pest control agents in the context of other potential environmental impacts.

Objectives:

  1. Develop basic analytical techniques for the detection and quantification of three new generation insecticides on foliage and in water.
  2. Determine the amounts of these the new generation insecticides that can potentially enter aquatic ecosystems after application to orchards by estimating atmospheric movement (drift), and estimating concentrations likely to enter surface water systems after spray events through field studies and by applying existing environmental fate models to predict loadings to streams and rivers.
  3. Develop basic toxicity data for these three insecticides on two important groups of animals, the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia pulex and Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.
  4. Develop hazard assessments the new generation insecticides to determine whether these pesticides pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems.

Amount for FY 2009 = $61,886
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Mapping soil-water dynamics on the Palouse with proximal soil sensing
Lead PI: David J. Brown, Crop & Soil Sciences
Co-PIs: David Huggins, USDA-ARS; Colin Campbell, Doug Cobos, Decagon Devices
Collaborators: Francis Pierce, Richard Rupp, Ross Bricklemyer

Emerging Issue Being Addressed: Water and air environmental quality as part of sustainable agricultural production systems

Significance: Crop management requirements and yields can be highly variable within Eastern Washington farms and fields due to significant spatial variability in topography, soils, and hydrology. Ideally, fertilizer application should be managed spatially to minimize cost, nutrient transport to surface and groundwater and emissions of N2O, a key greenhouse gas. Site-specific management techniques to meet these objectives are not easy to implement. In part, this is due to the difficulty and expense involved in accurately mapping soil properties and water dynamics needed to guide fertilizer use.

Objectives: To develop a research program focused on mapping soil and water variability with field-deployable sensors and segmenting the Palouse landscape into zones based upon soil-water dynamics. We propose to deploy and calibrate sensors in the field to efficiently map key Palouse soil-water parameters. The data these will generate will be used to develop and implement a Palouse landscape segmentation procedure for both site-specific management and experimental research design. The results from this initial study will be used to pursue external funding to expand research related to the spatial variability of soils and soil processes on the Palouse. We will construct a grower-oriented website highlighting the results of this project (including sensor calibrations) and utility of zone-based management.

Amount for FY 2009 = $75,026.00
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Extracting Antioxidants from Fruit Processing Wastes in Washington Agriculture
PI: Dr. Shulin Chen, Biological Systems Engineering
Co-PIs: Neal Davies, Dr. Tianxi Zhang

Emerging Issues Being Addressed: Value-added agriculture production systems including: (1) Consumer preferences and acceptance of evolving biotechnologies and functional foods aimed at improving health and nutrition; (2) Improving farm profitability through new uses of crops, livestock, and by-products; (3) Production, marketing, and distribution systems in support of emerging regional and local food systems.

Significance: Heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death for Washingtonians. This proposal addresses the emerging issue of value-added agriculture production systems by producing high value nutraceuticals, such as antioxidants, using fruit wastes derived from Washington agriculture (e.g., pomace from grape wine). Antioxidants have proven benefits in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Our specific approach is to extract antioxidants (polyphenols) from agricultural wastes through development of a novel polymer-based extraction technology. The production of high value antioxidants will add value to the Washington agriculture and food processing industry, including grape growers and wine producers.

Objectives: The goal of this project is to develop a cost-effective and environmentally benign process of extracting antioxidants from agricultural by-products such as grape pomace, apple cull and potato skin, in order to increase the value of Washington’s agriculture and related industries. This new technology can be adapted as a general extraction process for other agricultural products, such as fruits and vegetables containing high value nutraceuticals. This research project includes five specific objectives: (1) development and validation of analytical methodology for characterizing chemicals extracted from agricultural products; (2) enhancing polyphenol extraction with the addition of water-soluble species; (3) designing an industrial scale polyphenol extraction and purification process; (4) integrating the extraction and purification processes and demonstrating a pilot study; and (5) analyzing the antioxidant activities in final products.

Amount for FY 2009 = $61,572.00
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Which Way Forward in a Niche Market: The Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Organic and Functional Food in Washington State
PI: Heather Johnson, School of Economic Sciences
Co-PIs: Joan Ellis, Vicki McCracken, David Granatstein

Emerging Issues Being Addressed: Consumer preferences and acceptance of evolving biotechnologies and functional foods aimed at improving health and nutrition; Production, marketing, and distribution systems in support of emerging regional and local food systems

Significance: The demand for organic and functional foods remains strong within the US. As a result, a premium for agricultural products that have these traits continues to exist at the farmgate and in retail marketing. This premium is the additional amount of money received by producers who grow organic or functional food products instead of conventional foods and is ultimately paid by consumers based on their relative valuation of products having or lacking these characteristics. Willingness to pay (WTP) is defined as the maximum amount a person is willing to pay (or exchange) to obtain a good. Knowing the true maximum price a buyer is willing to pay for a given quantity of a good is an important part of a business plan and can positively or negatively impact market expansion and the profitability of farmers and businesses occupying a market niche. WTP information will help the organic and functional foods sectors to develop marketing and management strategies that address product adoption or product improvement opportunities.

Objectives: Existing research has used surveys and auctions to get consumer to reveal their true WTP, and these instruments may overestimate the consumers’ true WTP. The overall objective of the proposed research is to determine consumers’ true WTP for Washington state organic and functional produce in point-of-purchase situations. The central hypothesis, based on an extensive literature review, is that consumers are willing to pay a premium for Washington state organic produce but it also postulates that the premium will differ based on where food is purchased (natural food store versus conventional supermarket), frequency of purchases, and type of food being purchased (produce versus dairy). Using focus group and point of sale auction methods, we will determine whether people who purchase value-added produce from natural food stores will have a lower WTP than those who shop in conventional supermarket; whether occasional purchasers have a lower WTP (compared to regular purchasers) as they may purchase when it is convenient or purchase particular items on an “irregular” basis; and whether produce has a higher WTP than dairy because of the potential for more concerns about taste and quality.

Amount for FY 2009 = $60,000
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Quick Links

Cover Crops to Enhance Soil Productivity and Nitrogen Management in Organic and Transition Vegetable Production Systems.

Genomically Standardized Farming for High-Quality Beef to Benefit Washington Agriculture and Human Health.

A Needs Assessment for Washington Conventional and Organic Produce Growers: Food Safety Awareness and Use of Management Practices Promoting Safety of Washington Produce.

Examination of foodborne pathogens in relation to bacterial water quality parameters and water quality improvement using sustainable agriculture approaches.

High Throughput Profiling of Washington Crops for Phytochemicals Related to Human Health.

An Autonomous Application System for Targeted Pest Control.

Adding Values to Agricultural Commodities Produced in the State of Washington: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

Preparing Washington State Forage Producers for Pest Management and Agronomic Impacts of Long-Term Drought and Climatic Change.

High-Value Crops under High Tunnels in Western Washington.

Investigation of Starch-Based Polycarboxylic Acids as Curing Agents for Waterborne Epoxy Adhesives and Crosslinker for Cellulose.

Quantifying intra-tree fruit quality variability relative to 3-D canopy architecture.

Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Manure and Biosolids – Implications for Agricultural Systems and Water Quality.

Modeling the Impact of New Generation Insecticides used in Apple Production on Water Quality.

Mapping soil-water dynamics on the Palouse with proximal soil sensing.

Extracting Antioxidants from Fruit Processing Wastes in Washington Agriculture.

Which Way Forward in a Niche Market: The Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Organic and Functional Food in Washington State.

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